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A trial campaign

consists of testing a product on the market on a limited amount of people to see their reaction towards the product before thinking about reaching all potential consumers.

Ad serving

The delivery of ads by a server to an end user's computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed by both a Web publisher and by an advertiser. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.

Ad tags

Usually a single pixel (know as a 1x1 pixel) that are placed within the online advertising message to enable performance tracking. I.e. number of times the ad was served and linking an ad outcome like a sale back to the site and ad that caused it. 

Algorithmic search (aka natural search and organic search)

The process by which a search engine like Google determines the best results to match the search query. Unlike paid search no money passes between advertisers and search engines to determine these results.


is a marketing strategy which involves the transaction of goods or services between businesses as opposed to relations between businesses and other groups, for example consumers (B2C) or public administration (B2G). It is a term that originated and is almost exclusively used in electronic commerce and typically takes the form of automated processes between trading partners and is performed in much higher volumes than (B2C) applications. B2B is also used to identify sales transactions between businesses. 

Brand activation

is the seamless integration of all available communication means in a creative platform in order to activate consumerism. Activation means stimulating interest, trial and loyalty. (Source: 

Brand awareness

is the extent to which a brand is recognized by potential customers, and is correctly associated with a particular product. Usually expressed as a percentage of target market, brand awareness is the primary goal of advertising in the early months or years of a product's introduction.

Brand building

is enhancing a brand's equity directly through advertising campaigns and indirectly through promotion such as cause championing or event sponsorship.

Brand equity

"Brand equity" refers to the value of a brand. Brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality and strong product associations. Brand equity also includes other intangible assets such as patents, trademarks and channel relationships.

Brand extension

"Brand extension" refers to the use of a successful brand name to launch a new or modified product in a new market. Virgin is a good example of how brand extension can be applied across quite diverse and distinct markets.

Brand image

"Brand image" refers to the set of beliefs that customers hold about a particular brand. These are important to develop well, since a negative brand image can be very difficult to shake off.

Brands and products

Brands are rarely developed in isolation. They normally fall within a business' product line or product group. 


The application that enables PC users to access the World Wide Web of information.



The store of previously viewed online content within the browser that allows previously visited pages to load more quickly, and also allows users to view previously seen content without connecting to the internet.


is something for which people try to gather money to do well to others. The welfare of a person or group, is seen as a subject of concern. 



is a non-profit organization (NPO) gathering money for a cause. Charities are generous actions or donations to aid the poor, ill, or helpless or something given to a person or persons in need; alms.


A cookie is a text-only string of information that a website transfers to the browser on a consumers computer so that the website can recognise users when they return. Cookies can store personal data (with opt-in consent for items such as passwords) and cookies that store anonymous data (without opt-in consent for items such as browsing history). However the consumer can easily delete this data by deleting the cookie.

Cookies can easily be deleted by users through the 'Tools' and 'Internet Options' menus on an internet browser.

It is a myth to suggest that cookies are bad for privacy - cookies are a friendly internet tool primarily used by the advertising and e-commerce industry to make surfing easier and quicker. They have several roles, none of which can compromise your privacy:

Protection - to ensure you are a genuine visitor and not someone else using your password. Authenticate and speed up your identification and e-commerce transactions. Recognise preferences e.g. remember user names and passwords for websites. Cap the frequency of ad serving and increase the relevancy of ads served to a user.

First party cookies - come directly from the website visited and are used to recognise return visitors. This form of cookies is particularly useful to consumers and should be allowed to live permanently on the user's browser.

Third party cookies - come from the ads served on a website (delivered by a third party ad server) and are used primarily for ad targeting purposes. These cookies are less directly useful to a user and show a limited shelf-life (ie 30 or 60 days). Most cookies can be easily deleted by the user.

Crawlers (aka spiders)

Technology that automatically searches the web for content. For example crawlers from search engines regularly visit web pages to collate content to determine the best results for search.

Creative strategy

An outline of what message should be conveyed, to whom, and with what tone. This provides the guiding principles for copywriters and art directors who are assigned to develop the advertisement. Within the context of that assignment, any ad that is then created should conform to that strategy.



is an individual or a firm that buys goods from a producer or distributor for wholesale and/or retail reselling. Unlike a distributor, a dealer is a principal and not an agent.

Differentiated marketing

is a marketing strategy whereby a company tries to target several market niches or population segment by offering different products tailored for each niches or segment. Typically differentiated marketing creates more total sales than undifferentiated marketing, but it also increases the costs of doing business.

Digital communication

means using telecommunication (internet, television, radio.) tools in order to reach the target audience.

Direct communication 1:1

is also called direct marketing and involves direct transmission of a message from a single source to a single, specific receiver. It is intended to facilitate reaching the consumer.

Display advertising

These are graphic commercial messages that are placed on website to attract the attention of online consumers. These can come in a variety of different shapes and sizes (determined by their dimensions measured by the number of pixels in width and height, e.g 468x60, 350x600, 500x600, 200x400).


An entity that buys non-competing products or product-lines, warehouses them and resells them to retailers or direct to the end users or customers. Most distributors provide strong manpower and cash support to the supplier or manufacturer's promotional efforts. They usually also provide a range of services (such as product information, estimates, technical support, after-sales services, credit) to their customers.


Event marketing

is designing or developing a 'live' themed activity, occasion, display, or exhibit to promote a product, cause, or organisation. It is also called event creation.

Experiential marketing

The term "experiential marketing" refers to actual customer experiences with the brand/product/service that drive sales and increase brand image and awareness. It is the difference between telling people about features of a product or service and letting them experience the benefits for themselves. When done right, it is the most powerful to win brand loyalty.



The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser over the course of the campaign, or in a single surfing session - for example 5 times. Aggregate frequency is worked out by dividing the total number of impressions by the total number of unique viewers, as measured by unique cookies. For example if the campaign had 6 million impressions, and was seen by 1 million unique users it would have an average frequency of 6.



Preparing a minor for exploitation, generally sexual exploitation.



is the measure of user exposure to web content within a browser window. Each web page delivered to a browser (on request of a user) is counted as a page impression. Each online ad delivered to a browser (placed within, on top of or between web based content) is counted as an ad impression.

Integrated marketing communication (IMC)

IMC is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of communications disciplines, such as general advertising, direct response, sales promotion and public relations, and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency and maximum communication impact. (Source: E. Thorson & J. Moore, Integrated communication a synergy of persuasive voices, 1996)

Interactive marketing

is the ability to address the customer, remember what the customer says and address the customer again in a way that illustrates that we remember what the customer has told us (Deighton 1996)

Internal motivation

is an inner driving force which a person sets up to accomplish a certain goal. The striving towards this goal is something a person wishes to do.

IP - Internet Protocol

A protocol telling the network how packets are addressed and routed

IP address

Internet protocol numerical address assigned to each computer on the Internet so that its location and activities can be distinguished from those of other computers. The format is ##.##.##.## with each number ranging from 0 through 255 (e.g.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

A company that provides consumers and companies access to the Internet. Earthlink and AOL are two widely used services. ISP's offer services through the following types of connections: dial-up phone lines; DSL phone lines; cable connections; and cellular connections. Mention link with IP addresses.


Loyalty & long-term marketing

consist of defining your "best customers" and using this data to create a long-term profitable relationship with them. This takes into account the fact that it is cheaper to keep a good customer then to find a new one.


Market penetration

consists of measuring the extent of a product sales volume relative to the total sales volume of all competing products. The deeper the penetration, the higher the volume of product sales. In order to expand the sales of current products in markets where their products are already being sold, marketers utilize market penetration strategies such as cutting prices, increasing advertising, obtaining better store or shelf positions for their products, or innovative distribution tactics.


Non-profit marketing

is the marketing of a product or service in which the offer itself is not intended to make a monetary profit for the marketer. It is marketing that works to serve the public interest, as opposed to marketing purely for financial gain. Non-profit marketing is conducted for organizations or ideas and it is more likely to promote social programmes and ideas, such as highway safety, recycling, gun control, or energy conservation.



Refers to an individual activity (e.g. ticking a box) giving a company permission to use data collected from or about an individual for a particular reason, such as to market the company's products or services.

Opt-in e-mail

An email sent to lists of Internet users who have voluntarily signed up to receive commercial e-mail about topics of interest.


A facility for a user to choose not to receive communication from a company.


P3P (Platform for Privacy Preferences Project)

Browser feature that will analyze privacy policies and allow a user to control their privacy needs.


Patent is an exclusive right or title giving the owner the sole authorisation to use his invention. Competitors cannot use the invention until the patent expires. This patent is only guaranteed for a limited amount of time.

PLI (Privacy Leadership Initiative)

A partnership of CEOs from 15 corporations and 9 business associations using research to create a climate of trust that will accelerate acceptance of the Internet and the emerging Information Economy, both online and offline, as a safe and secure marketplace.

Privacy policy

A statement about what information is being collected; how the information being collected is being used; how an individual can access his/her own data collected; how the individual can opt-out; and what security measures are being taken by the parties collecting the data. Privacy policies appear on most (all) company web sites.

Privacy seal program

A programme that certifies that the website owner complies with the site's proposed policy. Examples include TRUSTe and BBBOnline.

Product launch

is the debut of the promotion of a product in the market using all the different marketing tools. It is the point at which the consumers have first access to the product.

Product line

refers to a group of brands that are closely related in terms of their functions and the benefits they provide. A good example would be the range of desktop and laptop computers manufactured by Dell.

Product mix

relates to the total set of brands marketed by a business. A product mix could, therefore, contain several or many product lines. The width of the product mix can be measured by the number of product lines that a business offers.

Product re-launch

means reintroducing a product into the market by for example rebranding it.

Prying (aka Spying)

Secretly observing or monitoring with ill intent.


Retail/trade marketing

is a marketing strategy used by retailers or distributors to ensure that their products will be sold as much as possible. For a distributor, the goal is to place its products in a maximum of outlets. To ensure this they need to offer certain advantages to the retailers to choose their products over other products. For a retailer the objective is to make sure that individual consumers choose their shops instead of others. In order to do that, they need to distance themselves from other retailers.


A business which sells goods to the consumer, as opposed to a wholesaler or supplier which normally sell their goods to another business. Retailers include large businesses and also smaller, non-chain locations run independently such as a family-run bookstore.


Sales force

refers to the number of salespersons managed and employed by a firm. Their goal is to sell a maximum. They represent their company and its values towards the customer.


Operating fraudulent business schemes.

Search Engine

This site or application helps web users to find information on the Internet. The method for finding this information is usually done by maintaining an index of Web resources that can be queried for the keywords or concepts entered by the user.

SEM (Search Engine Marketing)

A form of Internet Marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in the Search Engine result pages. This can either be done by paying for (generally) text ads to appear when the user searches for specific terms (paid search) or through Search Engine Optimisation.

SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

SEO is the process of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results. Site optimization-modifies a site to make it easier for search engines to automatically index the site and result in better placement in results.

Social Media

describes the online tools that people use to share content, profiles, opinions, insights, experiences, perspectives and media itself, thus facilitating conversations and interaction online between groups of people. These tools include blogs, message boards, podcasts, micro blogs, lifestreams, bookmarks, networks, communities, wikis, and vlogs. It is the democratization of content and the understanding of the role people play in the process of not only reading and disseminating information, but also how they share and create content for others to participate. It is the shift from a broadcast mechanism to a many-to-many model, rooted in a conversational format between authors and people. (Source:

Social network

An online destination that gives users a chance to connect with one or more groups of friends, facilitating sharing of content, news and information. Examples of social networks include Facebook and LinkedIn.

Social responsibility

The principle that companies should contribute to the welfare of society and not be solely devoted to maximizing profits. Socially responsible companies can act in a number of ways to benefit society. For example, companies can give money to the arts, fund academic scholarships, support community-building initiatives, and so on. They can also commit to not pollute or to reduce the pollution they put out, to not build weapons, and so forth.


Unsolicited commercial or offensive messages through email, social networks, instant messengers or other mechanisms, such as comments on blogs.


Sending unsolicited commercial or offensive messages through mechanisms like email, social networks, instant messengers or comments in blogs.


Sponsorship in an online context can be defined as "an indirect form of persuasion that allows companies to carry out marketing objectives by associating with key content" (Rodgers, 2000, p. 1). In traditional media channels, most sponsorships tend to be simple and are limited to brand name identification (e.g. "Sponsored by Kraft Foods") or, in some cases, the brand name and a brief slogan (Hansen & Scotwin, 1995) (e.g., "Kraft Foods: Feeding the hungry one person at a time"). (The Interactive Advertising Model: How Users Perceive and Process; Shelly Rodgers, University of Minnesota; Esther Thorson, University of Missouri-Columbia). It is also a business relationship between a provider of funds, resources or services and an individual, event or organisation which offers in return rights and association that may be used for commercial advantage in return for the sponsorship investment.



Tie-in refers to a marketing arrangement in which a supplier of an in-demand good or service sells it on the basis that the buyer (usually a retailer or reseller) also buys a certain amount of another (less popular) product. Thus, it is also called a 'tie-in arrangement'.

Touch point

is the interface of a product, a service or a brand with consumers, non consumers, employees or other stakeholders-before, during and after a purchase. Everywhere people come into contact with a brand is called a "touch point". This applies to business-to-business market as well as business-to-consumers market.

Trademark (TM)

The name or other symbol used to identify the goods produced by a particular manufacturer or distributed by a particular dealer and to distinguish them from products associated with competing manufacturers or dealers. A trademark that has been officially registered and is therefore legally protected is known as a Registered Trademark.



Abbreviation for Unique Resource Locator - the web address (that starts http://www.) that locates the files of a website on a specific computer server.


Viral marketing

Marketing tactic that taps into the growth of social networks, encouraging users to adopt and pass along widgets or other content modules created by a brand, or to add a brand to the user's social circle of friends.